About

The UNIDO Industrial Analytics Platform is an innovative tool featuring data on select indicators of industrial development and relevant research by leading experts in an accessible format.

Methodological overview

The UNIDO Industrial Analytics Platform provides data on a set of tailored indicators relevant to industrial development. To ensure that the best available sources are used for each indicator, data are derived from internal as well as external databases. Where possible, data are presented at the 2-digit level of the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) to identify trends at the industry level.

Comments

  • Generally, only countries and territories for which both national accounts and trade data are available are included in the analysis (for a complete list, see section “Country groupings”). Graphs might, however, include additional territories as trade partners, where relevant.

  • Data of former territories (Netherlands Antilles, Serbia and Montenegro, Sudan (Former)) are included in the regional/development status aggregates.

  • While regional/development status aggregates cover all available countries with both national accounts and trade data, some countries and territories are not considered in the country-level analyses:

    • Countries/territories with a population of less than 300,000 in 2016

    • Countries with significant data inconsistencies

  • Regional/development status aggregates in BACI and INDSTAT are calculated on the basis of an unbalanced panel of countries, which may lead to biased results due to countries entering and exiting the sample. 

  • By default, countries are compared to the largest economy in their home region (subject to data availability).

Main data sources

This section contains information on the data sources used within the platform. Due to analytical procedures applied to improve data coverage and consistency, results may - in some cases - diverge from official data.

UNSD National Accounts Main Aggregates Database (December 2018)

The UNSD National Accounts Main Aggregates Database contains national accounts data for over 200 countries and territories since 1970. The database is maintained by the Economic Statistics Branch of the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD). It combines data from UNSD with that from statistical agencies of international organizations and national statistical offices.

For detailed information on the methodology as well as access to the database, please refer to the UNSD website.

Information used

Data on gross domestic product and value added of seven economic sectors for 209 economies (including former territories) between 1990 and 2016 (in current and constant 2010 US dollars)

Comments

  • In this version of the UNSD National Accounts Main Aggregates Database, data on China’s manufacturing value added was unavailable for the years 1990 to 2003/2004 (current/constant prices). Data on China’s manufacturing value added between 1990 and 2003/2004 has been taken from UNIDO MVA 2018. For access to the latest version of UNIDO MVA, please refer to the UNIDO Statistics Data Portal.

  • The value added in “Mining and utilities” is calculated as residual of the sector “Mining, Manufacturing, Utilities” after deducting value added under “Manufacturing”.

  • The value added in “Wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels”, “Transport, storage and communication” and  “Other Activities” has been combined under “Services”.

  • “U.R. of Tanzania: Mainland” and “Zanzibar”, which are reported separately in the original data, have been merged under “Tanzania” for consistency with other datasets.

  • In some instances, the original data contained duplicate country-year observations at the time of country mergers and separations. To avoid double-counting, the datasets include:

    • Netherlands Antilles - from 1990 to 2009 (replaced by Curaçao and Sint Maarten (Dutch part) from 2010 onwards)

    • Sudan (Former) - from 1990 to 2007 (replaced by Sudan and South Sudan from 2008 onwards)

    • Timor-Leste - included in Indonesia from 1990 to 1998. Reported separately from 1999 onwards

CEPII BACI (January 2019) 

BACI is a trade database developed by the French research institute CEPII (Centre d’Etudes Prospectives et d’Informations Internationales). It provides data on trade flows at a high level of product disaggregation (HS 6-digit) for over 200 countries from 1995 onwards. BACI derives its source data from the United Nations COMTRADE database. Through elaborate harmonization procedures, CEPII BACI can extend the country coverage considerably compared to the original data.

For a detailed description of the BACI methodology, please refer to BACI: International Trade Database at the Product-Level. The 1994-2007 version (Gaulier/Zignago 2010, CEPII Working Paper No. 2010-23)

Users with a valid subscription to the United Nations COMTRADE database can request access to CEPII BACI.

Information used

Data on trade flows for 209 economies (including former territories) between 1995 and 2016.

Trade flows for Belgium, Luxembourg and member states of the Southern African Customs Union (Botswana, Eswatini, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa) are reported in the aggregates “Belgium-Luxembourg” and “South African Customs Union”.

Comments

  • BACI contains datasets from different versions of the Harmonized System (HS) product classification. To achieve a coverage from 1995 to 2016, data classified by HS92 has been selected for further processing.

  • HS92 6-digit codes were translated into ISIC Rev. 3 2-digit industries and Broad Economic Categories (BEC) Rev. 4 with the help of concordance tables from World Integrated Trade Solution (WITS).

  • BEC codes were used to map trade flows to basic classes of goods in the SNA (capital goods, intermediate goods, consumption goods) in accordance with BEC Rev. 4.

  • Trade flows reported under “European Free Trade Association, nes” have been excluded from the dataset.

  • Trade data for some countries includes information from other countries or territories:

    • Trade data for France includes Monaco

    • Trade data for Switzerland includes Liechtenstein

    • Trade data for the United States includes Puerto Rico

  • Trade flows reported under “Other Asia, nes” are labelled “China, Taiwan Province”. While this is expected to be largely correct, some flows to other Asian economies might be incorrectly attributed.

  • For 2005, trade flows are reported under both “Serbia” and “Serbia and Montenegro”. After consultations with the data provider, both categories were kept in the dataset. 

UNIDO INDSTAT 2 2018

UNIDO INDSTAT 2 combines historical time series data on industrial statistics for over 170 countries starting from 1963. It provides data for seven principle indicators (number of establishments, employment, wages and salaries, output, value added, gross fixed capital formation and number of female employees) and the index of industrial production. For fully reporting countries, data are available for all 23 industries representing the manufacturing sector at the 2-digit level of the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Rev. 3.

For detailed information on the methodology and access to the latest version of the database, please refer to the UNIDO Statistics Data Portal (full access to the database is available with subscription only).

Information used

Data on value added, employment and gross output for 17 industries for 78 economies between 1990 and 2016.

Comments

  • 17 ISIC Rev.3 2-digit industry combinations were chosen for consistency purposes, while maintaining a detailed set of industries and relatively high country coverage. Countries that did not provide data on the value added of and employment in these 17 industries for at least one year were excluded from the database, while still including countries that do not produce in certain industries at all.

  • To improve consistency over time, the time series were created through linking procedures. First, a baseline year was chosen for which the country provided full data coverage for value added and employment. The time series were then extrapolated forward and backward using the growth rates of the industry-level series of value added and employment. Such linking conveniently dealt with breaks in the series that occur due to changes in classifications and definitions of variables over time (e.g. employment may be reported in terms of persons engaged or in terms of employees).

  • Due to the changes in the classifications and definitions of variables, growth rates had to be compiled on the basis of one specific definition. Gaps were filled by linear interpolation, higher aggregates of industry classifications and by value added (employment) growth rates if employment (value added) was not available.

  • Gross output is obtained as a ratio to value added. The ratio of output to value added was calculated for any year with information on gross output and value added. The ratio was interpolated or kept constant between the first and last year with available data for the years that had no information on gross output and value added. Subsequently, output was calculated by multiplying the obtained ratio with the final value added series.

OECD Trade in Value Added (TiVA) Database 2016 

The OECD Trade in Value Added (TiVA) Database provides indicators designed to illustrate linkages in global production networks and supply chains for more than 60 countries since 1995. It contains, among others, data on “Origin of value added in gross exports” calculated from the OECD Inter-Country Input-Output (ICIO) database. With the help of input-output tables, a country’s trade flows can be disaggregated by source country of the embodied value added.

For indicator definitions, access to the latest version of the database (in ISIC Rev. 4) and a detailed overview of the OECD TiVA methodology, please refer to the OECD website.

Information used

Data on the indicators “Foreign value added in gross exports” and “Domestic value added embodied in gross exports” for 61 economies between 1995 and 2011.

Supplementary data sources for country profiles

Data on population were taken from UNDESA World Population Prospects 2019.

Score and country ranking for the UNIDO Competitive Industrial Performance Index in the years 2016 and 2017 were derived from the UNIDO Statistics Data Portal.

Score and country ranking for “Ease of Doing Business” in 2020 were taken from the World Bank’s Doing Business Report 2020.

Score and country ranking for the UNDP Human Development Index in the years 2016 and 2017 were derived from UNDP’s Human Development Indices and Indicators: 2018 Statistical Update.

Country groupings

Country grouping by geographical region

The country grouping by geographical region is based on the UN M49 classification (as of February 2019). Data for former territories (Netherlands Antilles, Serbia and Montenegro, Sudan (Former)) are classified in accordance with the latest retrievable version of M49 that includes these territories. The grouping for country aggregates reported in trade data from CEPII BACI (South African Customs Union, Belgium-Luxembourg) is clearly defined by the grouping of the individual countries.

A table outlining data coverage and the composition of country groups by geographical region is available for download.

Country grouping by development

The country grouping by development is based on UNIDO’s International Yearbook of Industrial Statistics 2019 and on decisions of the United Nations General Assembly (Least Developed Countries). Data for former territories (Netherlands Antilles, Serbia and Montenegro, Sudan (Former)) are classified in accordance with the latest version of UNIDO’s International Yearbook of Industrial Statistics, which includes these territories. China is grouped under “Emerging Industrial Economies”. The missing groupings for Nauru, Sint Maarten (Dutch part) and Turks and Caicos were added under the guidance of the UNIDO Department of Statistics. The grouping for the aggregate “South African Customs Union” reported in trade data from CEPII BACI is not uniquely defined by the grouping of the individual countries. Since “Other Developing Economies” is the most common grouping, data under “South African Customs Union” are allocated to this group for the calculation of aggregates.

A table outlining data coverage and the composition of country groups by development is available for download.

Industry classifications

While the UNIDO Industrial Analytics Platform’s aim is to report industry-disaggregated data at the 2-digit level of the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Rev. 3, this is not always possible. Industry-disaggregated data are frequently already reported in industry combinations for practical and analytical reasons. In other cases, the decision to collapse certain industries might be taken at a later stage to arrive at a more consistent dataset (see UNIDO INDSTAT 2 2018). However, where possible, data is reported at the highest level of disaggregation to preserve granularity of the original sources.

Classification by technology group

The classification of industries by technology is based on UNIDO’s manual Industrial Statistics. Guidelines and Methodology (pp. 244, see document). It largely reflects the efforts of the OECD in grouping industries by their R&D intensity (latest version based on ISIC Rev. 4, see here). Rather than differentiating between “Medium-high technology” and “high technology”, the UNIDO classification combines both categories under “Medium-high and high technology (MHT)”. While it is generally acknowledged that such classifications may not fully capture the technology content of a specific industry, they are widely used in the literature.

Within the data explorer, technology groups are labelled as Low Tech (L, “Low technology”), Mid Tech (M, “Medium-low-technology”) and High Tech (H, “Medium-high and high technology (MHT)”).

A table outlining the concordance between the different industry classifications used in the platform datasets and their technology grouping is available for download.

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Citation

When citing or reproducing any data or material from iap.unido.org, please use the following reference:

UNIDO, ‘Industrial Analytics Platform’, https://iap.unido.org/

Contact us

The Industrial Analytics Platform (iap.unido.org) is a UNIDO initiative.

Contact us: iap@unido.org

Disclaimer

UNIDO data represented on the platform have been treated for analytical purposes as documented above and shall by no means be considered official UNIDO records or estimates. For the official statistical products of UNIDO, please refer to stat.unido.org.

Acknowledgements

  • National accounts indicators are calculated from source data and used with the permission of the United Nations Statistical Division

  • Trade indicators are calculated from source data and used in compliance with the conditions under Permission for re-dissemination and use of data within applications in the Policy on use and re-dissemination of UN COMTRADE data and with permission from CEPII

  • GVC indicators are calculated from source data by the OECD and used under licence

  • Population data is used with permission from UNDESA

  • Data from the World Bank Doing Business project is used under licence

  • UNDP Human Development Index data is used under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 IGO

  • Site by Applied Works

  • Generously supported and funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)